Tristan Tzara was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet, essayist and performance artist. Also active as a journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, he was known best for being one of the founders and central figures of the anti-establishment Dada movement. A Symbolist influenced by the work of Adrian Maniu, the adolescent Tzara co-founded the magazines Simbolul together with Ion Vinea, with whom he also wrote experimental poetry, and painter Marcel Janco. During World War I, after briefly collaborating on Vinea's Chemarea, he joined Janco in Switzerland. There, Tzara's shows at the Cabaret Voltaire and Züntfhaus zür Waag, as well as his poetry and art manifestos, became a main feature of early Dadaism. A main promoter of Dada culture, he represented its nihilistic side, in contrast with the more moderate approach favored by Hugo Ball.